Proceedings of the ECREA/CICOM Conference

Journalism is undergoing times of change. Since the impact of digital technologies in media markets around the mid 1990’s, this profession has experienced fast and often sudden transformations.

This process has brought an increasing complexity to journalism exercise. In the middle of a pre-existing media scene of newspapers, radio, television and agencies, a new digital medium arises, mainly represented by the Web and mobile platforms. Media companies have also undergone a deep reconfiguration, marked by the redefinition of their traditional business models. Journalists, the main figures of the information activity, have witnessed how their profession has evolved in a context of a brisk replacement of technologies and a new and more interactive relation with the audiences. Finally, the news content has also experienced its own particular process of transformation, with the arrival of new multimedia languages.

Briefly, in just a few years, the media landscape has been entirely reconfigured. And, even though the process is far from being completed, it is certainly noticeable the emergence of a new journalism with new professional profiles, where the distinctive feature is, mainly, diversity.

In view of this new scenario, it is quite urgent to reconsider the academic research on journalism. In order to deal with the growing complexity of media, new approaches and specific methodologies become necessary. Furthermore, it would be definitely essential to do so from an international perspective, thus different research experiences could enrich one another.

These Proceedings gather the research works presented to the Conference “Diversity of Journalisms: Shaping Complex Media Landscapes”, held in Pamplona (Spain), the 4th and 5th of July, 2011. This event was co-organised by ECREA Journalism Studies Section and the School of Communication of the University of Navarra. In the case of ECREA Journalism Studies Section, one of the thematic units of the European Communication Research and Education Association, this was its second conference, after that one held in Winterthur (Switzerland), 2009. As for the School of Communication of the University of Navarra, this convention was the 26th edition of its International Conference of Communication (CICOM), the most veteran academic congress in the field of communication among all those hosted in a Spanish speaking country.

The Conference had a successful response. There were 133 papers proposals, from nearly 30 different countries from all five continents. Due to organisational purposes and inspired by the idea of reaching a high quality level of academic contributions, the number of papers accepted for presentations during the Conference was limited to 80. This selection was made by 30 international reviewers, with a recognized experience as researchers in the field of journalism and communication.

This volume is structured in three main parts: ‘Papers’, ‘Abstracts’ and a final ‘List of authors’.

The first part gathers 28 full text papers, submitted by authors to the Conference organisation before the deadline established for reception of full original texts. Papers are arranged alphabetically according to the last name of first author.

The Abstracts section is a compilation of the 80 paper proposals that had a positive evaluation by the international reviewers which collaborated in the selection process. Papers are sorted in alphabetical order according to last name of first author.

Finally, there is a list of contributors, which mentions all authors that submitted a paper, either individually or collectively, together with their academic filiations and the panel where the paper was scheduled to be presented. The reader will notice how in certain cases, the papers’ mentions are followed by the observation ‘resigned’; this note indicates that, days before the Conference, the author of such paper informed the organisation about his/her intention of not attending the event. Due to the particular difficulties of the editing process of these Proceedings, which have been published days before the Conference, it was impossible to remove those works that were finally non-presented.

On behalf of the Management Team of ECREA Journalism Studies section, I wish to thank, first of all, the School of Communication of the University of Navarra, for its valuable support to the organisation of this international event. We are also very grateful for the collaboration of ECREA which, through its academic networks, made possible the diffusion of the call for proposals for this event and favoured its significant international response. We would also like to give recognition to the generous and disinterested participation of the keynote speakers of the different plenary panels: Aidan White, journalist and former General Secretary of the International Federation of Journalists (1987-2011); professor Maxwell McCombs, Jesse H. Jones Chair in Communications (University of Texas at Austin, USA); Howard Tumber, editor of Journalism. Theory, Practice and Criticism (SAGE Publications); Concha Edo, editor of Text&Visual Media (Spanish Journalistic Society - SEP); Larry Gross, editor of the International Journal of Communication and president of the International Communication Association (ICA) in 2011-2012 (University of Southern California); and Ana Azurmendi, editor of Comunicación y Sociedad (School of Communication, University of Navarra).

Lastly, we would also like to express our thanks to two public institutions: the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, which sponsored the Conference through the research project “Evolución de los cibermedios en el marco de la convergencia. Multiplataforma e integración periodística” [The Development of Spanish Cybermedia in the Convergence Context: Multiplatforms and Journalistic Integration] (ref.: CSO2009-13713-C05-03); and the Pamplona City Council, for the reception which was offered to the participants.

Ramón Salaverría, PhD
Chair of the ECREA Journalism Studies Section

Diversity of Journalisms. Proceedings of the ECREA Journalism Studies Section and 26th International Conference of Communication (CICOM) at University of Navarra, Pamplona, 4-5 July 2011, edited by Ramón Salaverría, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.



Over the last two decades, much of the research on and public conversation about journalism has focused on the idea of “change”. An impressive body of scholarship has scrutinized the transformations of news production in relation to digital technologies. As the various changes of journalism have been researched intensely, we now need to shift our focus to the various features of the emerging media landscape, with all its nuances in different spheres (content, structure of media organisations, professional values, business models, audiences, etc.).

“Diversity” is probably the word that best characterizes this new and complex media landscape. In their attempt to meet the challenges of a new technological environment and the changing demands from a more active audience, media organisations have adopted a diversity of approaches. At the same time, the professional values of journalists are shifting from traditional profiles to new ones. This growing diversity may be found in many aspects, including news content and their storytelling forms, the structures of media ownership, the profile and role of audiences.

The goal of this conference is therefore to address the concept of diversity related to contemporary journalism in a comprehensive and international way. More precisely, the conference aims to answer questions like the following ones:

  • What are the signs of diversity in the emerging journalism(s)? More specifically, what are the indicators of diversity when the subject is studied from different perspectives (economy, history, sociology, etc.)?
  • Is this diversity more evident in some specific spheres of journalism? What are the fields in which diversity is specially growing, and how is this process taking place? Are there areas of news production that are not evolving towards greater diversity?
  • How should academic research address this multifaceted media environment? What methodologies may be useful in order to better study journalism’s diversity?

Academic sponsor

Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (Spain). Research project: “Evolución de los cibermedios en el marco de la convergencia. Multiplataforma e integración periodística” (Ref.: CSO2009-13713-C05-03).

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Submission guidelines

Abstracts (max 300 words) were expected by the organizing committee before January 15th 2011. By March 1st, the Scientific Committee informed about the accepted papers.

The deadline to present the full paper (between 3,000 and 4,500 words) and for the early bird registration rates was May 1st. English will be the only working language of the Conference. Maximum: two papers per author and three authors per paper.

Papers can be sent to the General Secretary of the Conference ( Please, check the style guidelines.

Accepted full papers will be included on a CD, and a selection of the best of them could be published on a monograph.

Paper presentations

The Conference's method combines an opening keynote address, paper presentation panels and a roundtable.

Papers are not expected to be read. There will be a presentation of the main ideas and conclusions by every author during 15 minutes approximately (audiovisual media are allowed), and an open discussion among the participants.


Researchers were invited to submit proposals on the following topics:

  • diversity of journalisms (journalistic practices, journalistic genres, journalistic values): public, citizen, online, tabloid, routine, enterprise journalism, TV, radio, print; also factual and background/analysis;
  • diversity of journalists: professional vs. amateur; gender/sexual orientation, age, religion or belief, ethnicity; education; role conceptions; personal values;
  • diversity of media organisations: traditional organisations, networks, convergent structures, ‘crowdsourcing’;
  • diversity of journalistic content: storytelling forms, genres, sources and frames;
  • diversity of users/audiences, and their relationship with structural, market, policy conditions;
  • diversity of media ownership and business models;
  • diversity of journalism education programmes.

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Style guidelines

Before sending the full paper (3,000-4,500 words) to the General Secretary of the Conference (, please check the APA Style Guidelines tutorial » [WARNING: with autoplay audio], where you will find this information:


Registration for the conference is now closed.


Access the full programme, with the distribution of papers in theme panels »

Monday, July 4th

08:00 - 09:00 · Registration
09:00 - 09:30 · Official Opening [plenary session – Room 5]
· Mónica Herrero, Dean of the School of Communication, University of Navarra.
· Ramón Salaverría, Chair of the ECREA Journalism Studies Section and Director of the Journalism Projects Department, University of Navarra.

09:30 - 10:30 · Keynote: The changing landscape of journalism, by Aidan White, Journalist, former Secretary General of the International Federation of Journalists (IFJ), 1987-2011. Introduced by Ramón Salaverría, University of Navarra [plenary session – Room 5]
10:30 - 11:00 · Coffee break [main hall]

11:00 - 12:30 · Paper panels 1-4 [parallel sessions]
12:30 - 14:00 · Lunch [buffet at the School of Communication's cafeteria]
14:00 - 15:30 · Paper panels 5-8 [parallel sessions]
15:30 - 16:00 · Coffee break [main hall]
16:00 - 17:30 · Paper panels 9-12 [parallel sessions]

17:30 - 18:30 · Keynote: Methodological challenges on today’s journalism research, by Maxwell McCombs, Professor, Jesse H. Jones Chair in Communications, University of Texas at Austin. Introduced by Esteban López‐Escobar, University of Navarra [plenary session – Room 5]

19:30 · Reception at the Palacio del Condestable, offered by Pamplona City Council. [Bus transportation from the Conference venue will be at the disposal of Conference attendees]

Tuesday, July 5th

08:30 - 10:00 · Paper panels 13-16 [parallel sessions]
10:00 - 10:30 · Coffee break
10:30 - 12:00 · Paper panels 17-20 [parallel sessions]

12:00 - 13:30 · Round table: Trends in research journals on journalism and communication [plenary session – Room 5]
· Howard Tumber, Editor of 'Journalism. Theory, Practice and Criticism', SAGE.
· Concha Edo, Editor of 'Text&Visual Media', Spanish Journalistic Society - SEP.
· Larry Gross, Editor of the 'International Journal of Communication' and President of the International Communication Association, University of Southern California.
· Ana Azurmendi, Editor of 'Comunicación y Sociedad', School of Communication, University of Navarra.

13:30 - 14:00 · Official Closing [plenary session – Room 5]
· Manuel Martín Algarra, Vice-dean of the School of Communication, University of Navarra.
· Thomas Hanitzsch, Vice-chair of the ECREA Journalism Studies Section, University of Munich.

14:00 · Special Lunch [University of Navarra dining hall]

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Venue and accommodation map

Hotels & hostels near the ECREA/CICOM Conference venue - Pamplona, Spain - larger map


Phone: (+34) 948 221212 | (+34) 948 232300

Public bus

Website: TCC urban transport (live information about lines and timetables)

Discover the city

Social programme

A reception will be offered by Pamplona City Council at the Condestable Palace in the evening of Monday, July 4th, at 19:30.
Bus transportation from the Conference venue will be available for all attendees.

Moreover, the Conference will take place right before the start of the internationally famous Fiestas of San Fermín (Pamplona, from 6th to 14th July).

Tourism information websites

· Navarra Tourism Office
· Pamplona Tourism Office

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International Conference of Communication
School of Communication
University of Navarra
31080 Pamplona (Spain)
Phone: (+34) 948 425 617
Fax: (+34) 948 425 664

Main site, with full references (in Spanish):

English site:

Site of the XXVI International Conference of Communication (CICOM):

Social networking: Twitter (@EcreaCicom2011), Facebook page, YouTube channel, Flickr stream

Organizing Committee Members
ECREA Academic Committee:
· Ramón Salaverría –
Chair of the ECREA Journalism Studies Section
· Georgios Terzis –
Vice-chair of the ECREA Journalism Studies Section
· Thomas Hanitzsch –
Vice-chair of the ECREA Journalism Studies Section

· Beatriz Gómez Baceiredo –
· Cristina Pérez Guembe –
· María José Yerro –
· Samuel Negredo Bruna –

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